THE 2300 DAYS OF DANIEL 8



evening morning, days

'Evening Morning 2300' - Daniel 8:14

2300




'Evening Morning 2,300'


This cryptic phrase is found in Daniel 8:14.

    Dan    8:13  Then I heard a holy one speaking; and another holy
                 one said to that certain one who was speaking,
                 "How long will the vision be, concerning the daily
                 sacrifices and the transgression of desolation,
                 the giving of both the sanctuary and the host to
                 be trampled under foot?"
            :14  And he said to me, "For two thousand three hundred
                 days; then the sanctuary shall be cleansed."


The phrase 'For two thousand three hundred days' being a translation of
the Hebrew;

'Until evening morning two thousands and three hundreds'

2300 ?


Much speculation has been advanced suggesting how the number 2,300 should
be viewed.


Due to the surrounding text this period is often considered to represent
either a literal 2,300 days or a literal 1,150 days (1,150 evenings plus
1,150 mornings). Historically based interpretations commonly advance
theories which have periods initiated by Antiochus Epiphanes around
168-171 BC and which terminate with the restoration of the temple by
Judas Maccabeus.


Another common perspective is the placement of a similar period of 2300
days (or 1150 days) into a future setting following the desecration of
a literal or symbolic Jerusalem.


All the above views place emphasis upon the understanding that the number
2300 should be considered as a measure of the time during which Jerusalem
will be trampled by the little horn. However, the question asked in Daniel
8:13 can also be interpreted from the viewpoint of how long would it be
before the little horn would arise to cast down the sanctuary.

Therefore, an additional common approach is to apply the 'day for a year'
principle and interpret the 'evening morning 2300' as being a reference
to either 2,300 years (or 1,150 years).


Some, trying to link the 2300 notion to the ram and goat vision, have
thought that as the Greek empire is commonly thought to have come into
existence in 331 BC the number may define the period between the rise of
the Greek empire and end-time events, ie a period of 2,300 years.


Others have attempted to link the texts of Daniel chapters 8 and 9, and
have proposed that the period of 2,300 years began with the command to
rebuild Jerusalem. Often reference is made to the period 457 BC to 1844 AD.


When one looks closely at Daniel chapter 8 and the seventy weeks prophecy
(Dan 9:24-27) they do appear to show a common thread. They share the
notion of the ceasing of the daily and the destruction of the sanctuary.

   [ NB: - Daniel 9:26 speaks of the destruction of Jerusalem and
           the sanctuary. While Dan 8:10-14 mentions the trampling
           of the sanctuary and host.
         - Dan 9:27 speaks of the ending of the daily and so does
           Dan 8:11-12. ]
 

DANIEL 8:14


The NKJV reads 

    Dan    8:14  And he said to me, "For two thousand three hundred
                 days; then the sanctuary shall be cleansed".


In this case the NKJV may not have made the right word choice for the
Hebrew word, Strong's H6663, translated 'cleansed'.

Strong's defines the Hebrew word translated 'cleansed' as meaning;

 "to be (causatively, make) right (in a moral or forensic sense)".

So the renderings, 'made right', 'justified' or 'vindicated' would have
been better.

 [NB: 1) The word H6663 in Dan 8:14 is in the form justified.
         The character and simply means 'and'. That leaves made right,
         a form of H6663 which is only encountered in Daniel 8:14. 
         The basic form of the word H6663 is right.

      2) The Pulpit Commentary states: "The word translated "cleansed"
         really means "justified"; it is the only example of this part
         of the verb." ]


There is also something else which should be discussed, another word
choice. The word rendered 'sanctuary' or 'holy place' is H6944.

Many considering 2300 to be talking about a short period of time,
occurring at the end-time, are convinced by the wording 'sanctuary
made right'. This is reinforced by many renderings, such as;

NIV  - "the sanctuary will be made right"
NASB - "then the sanctuary shall be properly restored"
YLT  - "then the holy place declared right"
OJB  - "then shall the Kodesh (Sanctuary) be vindicated"

The word for 'sanctuary' is Hebrew H6944 or H4720. When H6944 is used
it is commonly in the form the sanctuary meaning 'the sanctuary'. Although
this can also mean 'the Holy Place'.

In the form holyit is sometimes rendered 'sanctuary', but it is
commonly rendered 'holy'.

Often discussion over the latter portion of Dan 8:14 focuses upon the
rendering of H6663 (ie 'cleansed', 'justified', 'vindicated'). However,
not enough consideration is given as to whether in this context H6944
should be rendered 'sanctuary' or 'holy place' or 'holy' or 'holiness'.

When one looks at the nature of the Daniel chapter 8 prophecy it can be
seen that the text does not discuss what occurs after the reign of the
little horn. It does not discuss the subsequent rebuilding of the city
or the temple. It does not discuss the appearance of New Jerusalem. For
this reason it is unlikely that the very brief latter portion of Dan 8:14
should be understood to be addressing this issue. (Nevertheless, it is
understandable that those of the Jewish faith may wish to read into the
Dan 8:14 response an indication of a restored sanctuary. Yet, there really
seems to be no justifiable reason to do so.) Focus should still be upon
the fall of this symbolic city.

For this reason, also considering the more common rendering of holyit
is suggested that Dan 8:14 is actually talking about the justifying /
vindicating of the righteousness of God. This being done via the rendering
of His prophesied judgment against Jerusalem. 

So a more 'literal' rendering of Dan 8:14 would read;

    Dan    8:14  And saying to me, "until evening morning two
                 thousands and three hundreds and shall be
                 vindicated holiness".

                 [ NB: The sequence of H6663 and H6944 as
                       presented in English translations is
                       frequently the reverse of that found
                       in the Hebrew. ]


Let us keep in mind that Daniel chapter 8 is associated with Daniel
chapter 9.

The purpose of Dan 9:24 is to document a period of grace in which
symbolic Jerusalem could change its ways and prevent the unfolding
of what is prophesied against it.

The destruction of this Jerusalem and its sanctuary will be final.
Symbolic 'Old Jerusalem' will not be rebuilt. The sanctuary of
'Old Jerusalem' will not be re-established!

         [ NB: There is a New Jerusalem which will arise,
               but Daniel chapter 8 does not discuss this. ]


EVENING MORNING


Note, the wording 'evening morning' is often inappropriately translated
as 'days'.


The twin notions of 'evening' and 'morning' are associated with several
events;

   - the days of creation mentioned in Genesis chapter 1

   - the morning and evening lamb sacrifices

   - the morning and evening attendance of the lampstand


Only in the creation account of Genesis chapter 1 do we find the Daniel
chapter 8 sequence, ie 'evening' mentioned before 'morning'.

Therefore, on the surface there initially seems to be a connection between
the 'evening morning' of Daniel 8:14,26 and the repeated Genesis chapter 1
references.
However, the Genesis chapter 1 references are in the form 'becoming
evening and becoming morning'.

[ For many bible students Genesis chapter one is viewed as a literal
  account of a physical creation process. Some others prefer to view
  these creation days as symbolic and therefore envisage that the
  physical creation process took place over an extended period of time.
  A third perspective is that chapter one of Genesis is a symbolic
  representation of God's overall plan of spiritual creation. ]


What has tended to occur is the assumption that a day can be split into
two portions, one being 'evening' and the other being 'morning'.
Few have studied the use of the words 'evening' and 'morning' and how
they are actually utilised elsewhere in Scripture. 
However, even a surface study of these words indicates they are usually
utilised as point in time references. 'Evening' frequently refers to the
time 'sunset', while 'morning' frequently refers to the time 'sunrise'.


So in summary, the exact meaning which we should derive from the Daniel
'evening morning' wording is a little uncertain and is something that
a comprehensive interpretation of this prophecy would have to clarify.


This is discussed more fully below.


THE DANIEL 8:13 QUESTION


To better understand the meaning of the answer 'evening morning 2300'
we really need to give serious consideration to just what question
was being asked in the previous verse.

The NKJV presents the question of Daniel 8:13 as follows;

    Dan    8:13  ... "How long will the vision be, concerning the
                 daily sacrifices and the transgression of desolation,
                 the giving of both the sanctuary and the host to be
                 trampled under foot?"

Let us consider each point;

    'the vision'    - Is this talking about the entire vision starting
                      with the rise of the ram, or is it talking about
                      the final aspect when the little horn is active?

    'the daily'     - Is this referring to when the daily is performed,
                      or does it refer to when the daily is removed?

    'transgression' - The transgression of the priesthood, which causes
                      God to raise up this little horn to oppose the
                      daily (Dan 8:12); or the transgression of the
                      little horn against the daily?

    'trampled'      - The figurative trampling of the sanctuary and
                      host due to a corrupt priesthood, or the more
                      direct trampling performed by the little horn.


It is precisely this degree of ambiguity present in the Daniel 8:13
verse which has led to both long and short term views of the meaning
of the response 'evening morning 2300'.
Consequently, we observe interpretations which range from the relatively
short duration of 1,150 days to the much longer duration of 2,300 years.


A more 'literal' rendering of Dan 8:13 reads;

    Dan    8:13  ... "Until when the vision, the continual
                 and the transgression one-desolating to give
                 and sanctuary and host trampled"


        1)  In respect to the notion of 'vision', it has to be
            kept in mind that Daniel chapter 8 speaks not only
            about the daily offering, but also portrays a vision
            of a ram dominion followed by a goat dominion.
            Within the prophecy there is the subtle suggestion
            that there is a connection between the duration of
            the ram and goat dominions and the duration of the
            daily sanctuary offering.

        2)  The 'continual' is a reference to the daily sacrifices
            and offerings as it is in Numbers chapter 28, but it
            may also be applied to all that is stated in the Old
            Covenant to have ongoing 'continuance' in respect to
            worship.

        3)  Keep in mind that Daniel chapter 9,in Dan 9:27, also
            highlights a time when 'sacrifice and offering' will
            be brought to an end. 

        4)  In the prior verse, verse 12, the notion of ongoing
            'transgression' is provided as the reason for why
            God allows the horn to oppose the daily.
            (Dan 9:24 also links the notion of 'transgression'
            as one of the reasons for God's judgment against
            Jerusalem.)

        5)  In Dan 8:13 the 'one desolating' is clearly the
            'little horn' (of Dan 8:9-13) which brings an end
            sacrifices and offerings.

        6)  The notion of 'to give' in Dan 8:13 is explained
            by verse 12 as an 'army' or 'host' given over to
            the little horn to oppose the daily.

        7)  The Hebrew word rendered above as 'one-desolating'
            is Strong's reference H8074. In other translations
            it is rendered 'desolation', 'desolate', 'horror'
            or 'astonishment'(as in Young's Literal Translation).
            According to Strong's it means,
             "to stun (or intransitively, grow numb),
              i.e. devastate or (figuratively) stupefy
              (both usually in a passive sense).".
            This Hebrew word is also present in the  verses,
            Lam 3:11, Dan 9:27,12:11. 
            

An important issue we notice from the above points is that the presented
words 'transgression' and 'desolating-one' each relate to two different
entities. The notion of 'transgression' relates to the ongoing priesthood
transgression in Jerusalem (ie, sanctuary and host) and 'desolating-one'
is a direct reference to the little horn.

Hence, with this understanding it can be seen that the expression
'transgression of desolation' would represent an invalid combination
of words.     


It seems the correct rendering of the latter portion of Dan 8:13 is;

    Dan    8:13  ... "Until when? The vision, the continual
                 and the transgression; one-desolating given
                 and sanctuary and host trampled"


This question can be understood in two different ways;

        A)  How long the vision, the continual and the transgression,
            before the little horn is given an army and the sanctuary
            and host are trampled?

    OR  B)  1) How long the vision, the daily and the transgression?
                     AND
            2) How long the little horn (with his army) will cause
               the sanctuary and the host to be trampled?


So we will have to seek clarification as to whether one or two questions
are being asked in this verse.

A NEW PERSPECTIVE


There are a number of commonly encountered interpretations of the
'evening morning 2300'. However, what we seek is the true meaning!

[ NB: And the true meaning may require us to grasp the presence
      of symbolic presentation. ] 

AN OVERVIEW

From an overview we can observe the following.

      -  Daniel was not able to fathom the meaning of the Daniel
         chapter 8 vision and he could not find anyone else able
         to interpret it for him (Dan 8:27).
         However, in the subsequent chapter, verses 9:22-23 imply
         the understanding of the subsequent 70 weeks prophecy
         would assist in explaining the teaching of chapter 8.

      -  Common themes are present in both chapter 8 and 9
         predictions.
         - The fate of the sanctuary - chapter 8, v11, 'cast down'
                                     - chapter 9, v26, destroyed.
         - A state of desolation     - chapter 8, v11 & v12
                                     - chapter 9, v26 & v27.

A RELATED VERSE

When looking through Scripture for other references to the value '2,300'
one does not quickly encounter any related texts. However, using the
less well know '1 year can equal 50 years' principle (derived from
the Jubilee observance) we can locate a related text.

    John  2:19  Jesus answered and said to them, "Destroy this temple,
                and in three days I will raise it up."
           :20  Then the Jews said, "It has taken forty-six years to
                build this temple, and will You raise it up in three
                days?"


Needless to say 46 multiplied by 50 = 2300.

John 2:20 introduces the notion of the destruction of the temple after
the expiry of 46 years of building. Daniel chapter 8 introduces the
idea of the casting down of the sanctuary after the expiry of a period
of 2300. Both texts are suggesting;

             1)  a period of building
             2)  a subsequent destruction.

EXPLAINED BY CHAPTER 9

How does Daniel chapter 9 provide insight into the number 2300?

Looking at the 70 weeks prophecy, in chapter 9, we can see the period
of 69 weeks is composed of 7 + 62 weeks. At the start of the 7 weeks
building began (v25) and at the expiry of the 62 weeks Jerusalem and
its sanctuary are destroyed (v26). Thus the overall period of 69 weeks
also encompasses the notions of 1)building and 2)subsequent destruction.

               There is an inference the period indicated by
    *****      the number '2,300' found in Daniel chapter 8      *****
    *****      is also being referred to as '69 weeks' in        *****
               Daniel chapter 9!


What period is being referred to as '69 weeks'? Some would say 483 years
(ie 69 x 7 years), but they would be wrong! The prophetic period of
'69 weeks' refers to the period of 69 Jubilee years, ie 69 x 50 years or
3,450 years.
(For a full explanation of the 70 weeks prophecy click on the 'Bible Study
Index' below.)

[NB: The 3,450 years define a period from when the children of Israel were
     'planted' in the land of Canaan to the future destruction of a symbolic
     Jerusalem and its sanctuary (ie, the start of the Great Tribulation).]


What is the connection between '2300' and 3,450 years?


Daniel chapter 8 places heavy emphasis upon the regular daily sacrifice.
Bible students are generally aware that under the Jewish law two lambs
were to be offered every day, one in the morning and one in the evening,
refer to Exod 29:38-42 and Num 28:3-8.
However, what is less well known is that the book of Ezekiel documents a
further daily lamb offering to be offered on behalf of the 'prince' every
morning.

    Ezek  46:13  You (prince) shall daily make a burnt offering to the
                 LORD of a lamb of the first year without blemish; you
                 shall prepare it every morning.
            :14  And you shall prepare a grain offering with it every
                 morning, a sixth of an ephah, and a third of a hin of
                 oil to moisten the fine flour. This grain offering is
                 a perpetual ordinance, to be made regularly to the LORD.
            :15  Thus they (priesthood) shall prepare the lamb, the grain
                 offering, and the oil, as a regular burnt offering
                 every morning.

                 (Note: The quantity of flour and oil offerings required
                        to accompany the 'prince' offering differs to
                        that specified for the two lambs.)


The 'prince' offering is also mentioned in 2Kings.

    2King 16:15  ... burn the morning burnt offering, the evening grain
                 offering, the king's burnt sacrifice, and his grain
                 offering, with the burnt offering of all the people
                 of the land, their grain offering, and their drink
                 offerings; ...


Over a period of 1,150 mornings and 1,150 evenings, a total of 2,300
occasions, 3,450 lambs would have been offered as regular daily offerings!
2300 daily lambs would have been offered in the morning and 1,150 daily
lambs in the evening.

So it seems the number 2300 when connected with the regular daily sacrifice
is representing the period prior to the fall of Jerusalem. The 3,450 lambs
are representing a duration of 3,450 years!


So the answer to the question of how long the daily offerings and the
priesthood transgression is 3,450 years. The daily spans the period from
the time the children of Israel were settled in the Promised Land to the
yet future prophetic fall of the sanctuary.


While this interpretation fits in well with the notion of 'daily', one has
to ask what it has to do with the duration of the ram and goat (entities
which are defined in verses 20 & 21 as the kingdoms of Medo-Persia and
Greece respectively).

The only conclusion is that the provided definitions of verses 20 & 21
are symbolic explanations. That 'Media', 'Persia' and 'Greece' are
definitions being used to symbolize other entities.

For a fuller discussion of the ram and goat vision, click below.

RAM AND GOAT VISION - Daniel chapter 8


THE 'EVENING MORNING' COMMENT


We have now identified the meaning of the number 2300 (as 3,450 years)
and seen that it is the answer to the question of the duration of "the
vision, the continual and the transgression". 

However, we still need to consider how we should understand the
'evening morning' aspect of the response.


What factors indicate the 'evening morning' portion of the response is
to be understood as quite separate from the 2300 number?

  1) The sequence 'evening morning' differs from the sequence
     which is always used in respect to the daily. (The daily
     offering sequence is always 'morning evening'!).  


  2) In chapter 8 of Daniel there is a subsequent 'evening morning'
     reference and this reference is singular!

     While our translations often show the plural form;

       Dan    8:26  And the vision of the evenings and mornings ...
                    [ from NKJV ]

     The Hebrew actually shows these words in the singular
     form with 'the' preceding each.

       Dan 8:26  And the vision of the evening and the morning ...


     The indication from Daniel 8:26 is that there was only
     one evening and one morning presented in Daniel 8:14!


  3) There is also a further subtle indication.

       Dan 8:26  And the vision of the evening and the morning
                 Which was told is true; ...

       This affirmation "which was told is true" is somewhat
       mirrored in;

       Dan 12:7  Then I heard the man clothed in linen, who was
                 above the waters of the river, when he held up
                 his right hand and his left hand to heaven, and
                 swore by Him who lives forever, that it shall be
                 for a time, times, and half a time; and when the
                 power of the holy people has been completely
                 shattered, all these things shall be finished.


  4) We are also informed in Dan 8:26.
 
       Dan 8:26  And the vision of the evening and the morning
                 ... Therefore seal up the vision, for
                 it refers to many days in the future. 

     So the meaning of the singular 'evening morning' aspect of this
     prophecy has a fulfilment in the end-time.


So let us consider what a literal single 'evening' and a literal
single 'morning' may represent.

A notional 'Day'?


Some would quickly make a connection to the repeated evening morning
references in Genesis chapter one. This is where the proper sequence
of 'evening' then 'morning' is found. So does an 'evening' and a
'morning' represent a single day?

It may seem so, until one looks at how these two words are literally
used in Scripture. The topic of their use is quite complex and covered
in another webpage, so let us just state the findings of this web site.

 - Each of these terms refer to two points of time. There are two
   points of time called 'evening' (one of which is sunset) and
   there are two points of time called 'morning' (one of which
   is sunrise).
   When used to refer to a period of time, and not a point in time,
   'evening' may be considered to apply to the time between sunset
   and midnight and 'morning' to the time midnight to sunrise
   
So in literal terms these two terms could refer to the period of night.
The entire period of darkness. (However, not to a full 24 hour day.)

A Symbolic Night


The prophetic notion of judgment occurring during a symbolic 'night'
fits well with verses such as;

    John  9:4   I must work the works of Him who sent Me
                while it is day; the night is coming when
                no one can work.

    Dan   7:7   After this I saw in the night visions, and
                behold, a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible,
                exceedingly strong. ...
                [NB: A specific mention of 'night'; and this
                     being associated with the end-time 4th
                     beast. (Notice, that in Dan 7:2 we are 
                     already told the vision of the four
                     beasts occurred at night. So the further
                     Dan 7:7 mention suggests a symbolic
                     meaning only relevant to the 4th beast.)]                

    Amos  5:18  Woe to you who desire the day of the LORD!
                For what good is the day of the LORD to you?
                It will be darkness, and not light.

                (And other similar verses like Ezek 32:7-8
                 and Isa 13:9-11.)

A Symbolic Midnight


The terms 'evening' and 'morning' are normally used to refer to points
in time. While it is well understood that these terms are used to refer
to sunset and sunrise respectively, it is less understood that they can
also each refer to midnight!

For a fuller discussion refer to;

WHEN THE BIBLICAL DAY ENDS - NOT SUNSET


The twin notions of 'evening' and 'morning' can both refer to a single
time, ie 'midnight'. Just as they do in Genesis chapter one. 

What this means is that the 'evening morning' portion of the response
in Dan 8:14 would be inferring a symbolic 'midnight'!

A prophetic point in time.

This would mirror effectively what is portrayed with the lamb Passover
ceremony - where the chosen lamb had to be consumed before midnight.
Symbolically consumption of the lamb before midnight would equate to
blood over the doorway - and provide protection from death.

This point in prophetic time would be the pivot point when the corrupt
daily offering would be stopped.

'Evening Morning' Options


In Dan 8:14 the expression 'evening morning' can not refer to a full
24 hour day.

However, the term may refer to either;

                  1) a period of symbolic night, or

                  2) a symbolic midnight.

Both these options would explain why Dan 8:26 would refer to these
terms as singular. 

1) A single period of evening (sunset to midnight) and a single
   period of morning (midnight to sunrise); or

2) A single point in time which can be defined as both 'evening'
   and 'morning'. 


Which is the correct solution?


'EVENING MORNING' UNDERSTANDING


The symbolic night perspective has the following shortcomings;

1) If Dan 8:13 is understood as two questions (as previously discussed)
   then the answers 'evening morning' followed by '2300' would be
   answering the questions in the opposite sequence.

   [ If Dan 8:13 is understood as two questions then it would be
     asking how long would be the daily (before it was stopped) and
     then how long would be the reign of the little horn. So an
     'evening morning 2300' response would be answering the questions
     in the inverse order, defining the duration of the little horn
     and then the duration of the daily offerings. ]

2) It suggests the period of Great Tribulation can be segregated into
   two spans of time. The first called 'evening' and the second called
   'morning'. The problem with this is their is a lack of ancillary
   support for such a scenario.

   [ 1) The 4th beast of Daniel chapter seven has two sequential forms.
     Firstly the 10 horn form and secondly the little horn and 7 horn
     form. While the 4th beast is connected to the end-time (via the
     second mention of night) both forms do not have to be associated
     with the Great Tribulation. Notice, though, that trying to make
     the first form of the beast equal to the first half of the night
     and the second form equal to the second half of the night creates
     a mismatch for the timing of the rising of the little horn.
     Daniel chapter 7 would be indicating the little horn arises half
     way through the Great Tribulation and Daniel chapter 8 would be
     indicating he arises at the start of the Great Tribulation.
     2) The example of the Flood during the days of Noah may also
     suggest a two span view of the Great Tribulation. A time of rising
     waters and a time of receding waters. However, the 5th Trumpet of
     the book of Revelation (a timing prior to the Great Tribulation)
     shows a 5 month connection (Rev 9:5). So that indicates there is
     only a falling of the Flood waters for connection to the Great
     Tribulation. Hence, this also indicates the Great tribulation is
     not divided into two spans of time.]


The symbolic midnight perspective has its advantages;

1) It provides an equivalent timing for the fall of Jerusalem and the
   rise of the little horn.
   The fall of symbolic Jerusalem and the rise of the little horn in
   Daniel chapter 8 would correspond with the event which marks the
   second form of the Daniel chapter 7 4th beast. When 3 horns are
   removed by at the appearance of a little horn, Dan 7:8.

2) It does not require, or imply, the break-up of the Great Tribulation
   period into more than one span of time. 

3) It makes the response 'until evening morning 2300' a more coherent
   response.
   It indicates 'until 'midnight', 2300'
   So the response does not just give one or two answers. It also
   symbolically rephrases the Dan 8:13 question, as 'until midnight'.
   This tells us that Daniel in Dan 8:13 was only asking one question!
   That question being how long would be the daily before it was taken
   away, before the destruction of the little horn occurred.
   Daniel's question is answered by the number '2300'.
   

CONCLUSION


In conclusion, God has in chapter 8 simply presented an overview of
His spiritual work.

An overview, which spans the time from when Israel was settled in the
Promised Land through to the start of the Great Tribulation.

A Great Tribulation coming upon a symbolic 'Jerusalem'. When the time
specified by 'Seventy 'Sevens'' expires.

Great Tribulation - the time of the reign of the 'Little Horn'.

A time of judgment, which ensues because of the unwillingness of
'Jerusalem' to repent.


While this prophecy does not discuss it, following the events
mentioned in this prophecy, the prophesied 'New Jerusalem' will
be manifest. 






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