sacrificed bull

Old Covenant - Animal Sacrifices
at the Temple

sacrificed ram





         How many animals were routinely sacrificed at the Temple? 


         Animals were sacrificed according to four schedules.

                        - Daily
                        - Weekly Sabbath
                        - Appointed New Moons
                        - Annual Assembly Occasions


DAILY SACRIFICES



Timing                     Lambs               Grain                Drink
                                     (Fine flour & Pressed Oil)

Numbers 28:3-8
People's burnt offering

'in morning'                 1       1/20 ephah  +  1/8 hin         1/4 hin

'between the evenings'       1       1/20 ephah  +  1/8 hin         1/4 hin
                             -       ----------------------         --------
                             2       1/10 ephah  +  1/4 hin         1/2 hin

Ezekiel 46:13-15
Prince's burnt offering

'in morning in morning'      1       1/6 ephah   +  1/3 hin           nil

                           ---
                             3



***  Three lambs offered each day!  ***

PEOPLE'S BURNT OFFERING


    Num  28:3   And you shall say to them, "This is the offering made
                by fire which you shall offer to the Lord: two male
                lambs in their first year without blemish, day by day,
                as a regular burnt offering.
           :4   The one lamb you shall offer in the morning, the other
                lamb you shall offer in the evening,
           :5   and one-tenth of an ephah of fine flour as a grain
                offering mixed with one-fourth of a hin of pressed oil.
           :6   It is a regular burnt offering which was ordained at
                Mount Sinai for a sweet aroma, an offering made by
                fire to the Lord.
           :7   And its drink offering shall be one-fourth of a hin
                for each lamb; in a holy place you shall pour out the
                drink to the Lord as an offering.
           :8   The other lamb you shall offer in the evening; as the
                morning grain offering and its drink offering, you
                shall offer it as an offering made by fire, a sweet
                aroma to the Lord.

                [ NB: Verse 3 tells us the lambs were male lambs. ]


    Lev 6:20 advises the measurements of grain and oil stated in Num 28:5
    are actually daily amounts. Half to be offered in the morning and half
    later in the day.

    Lev   6:20  This is the offering of Aaron and his sons,
                which they shall offer to the LORD, beginning
                on the day when he is anointed: one-tenth
                of an ephah of fine flour as a daily grain
                offering, half of it in the morning and half
                of it at night.

PRINCE'S BURNT OFFERING


The requirement for a Prince offering is mentioned in Ezek 46:13-15.

    Ezek  46:13  You shall daily make a burnt offering to the Lord
                 of a lamb of the first year without blemish; you
                 shall prepare it every morning.
            :14  And you shall prepare a grain offering with it
                 every morning, a sixth of an ephah, and a third
                 of a hin of oil to  moisten the fine flour.
                 The grain offering is a perpetual ordinance,
                 to be made regularly to the Lord.
            :15  Thus they shall prepare the lamb, the grain
                 offering, and the oil, as a regular burnt
                 offering every morning. 


This morning offering requirement is confirmed in 2Kings 16:15.

    2King 16:15  ... burn the morning burnt offering, the evening grain
                 offering, the king's burnt sacrifice, and his grain
                 offering, with the burnt offering of all the people
                 of the land, their grain offering, and their drink
                 offerings; ...

                 [NB: Even though this verse is talking about
                      offerings to be made on a pagan altar,
                      the offerings themselves were those
                      required under the Old Covenant. ]

TIMING INFORMATION


In Numbers 28:4 and 28:8 translators have provided the word 'evening'.
However, in the Hebrew this actually says "between the evenings".


In Ezekiel 46:13-15 translators have provided the wording 'every morning'
Nevertheless, in the Hebrew this actually says "in morning in morning".

The repetition of 'in morning' may be indicating more information in
respect to the timing of the offering. As 'morning means 'break forth',
it may be saying 'in break forth in morning'. 



WEEKLY SABBATH (Additional)


 
Timing                     Ram   Lambs           Grain                  Drink
                                          (Fine flour & P/Oil)

Numbers 28:9-10
People's burnt offering

'in morning'                       1     1/10 ephah  +  1/8 hin         1/4 hin

'between the evenings'             1     1/10 ephah  +  1/8 hin         1/4 hin
                             -           ----------------------         --------
                                   2     2/10 ephah  +  1/4 hin         1/2 hin

Ezekiel 46:4-5
Prince's burnt offering

'in morning in morning'            6     open hand of grain;
                                         hin oil to an ephah

                             1           1 ephah


                           ---   ---
                             1     8

PEOPLE'S BURNT OFFERING


    Num  28:9   And on the Sabbath day two lambs in their first year,
                without blemish, and two-tenths of an ephah of fine
                flour as a grain offering, mixed with oil, with its
                drink offering
           :10  this is the burnt offering for every Sabbath, besides
                the regular burnt offering with its drink offering.

               NB: 1) The end of verse 10 informs us this offering
                      was in addition to the regular daily offering.
                   2) The above verses do not define the exact quantities
                      of oil and drink offerings, so the normal daily
                      measurements have been depicted.

PRINCE'S BURNT OFFERING


    Ezek 46:4   The burnt offering that the prince offers to the Lord
                on the Sabbath day shall be six lambs without blemish,
                and a ram without blemish;
           :5   and the grain offering shall be one ephah for a ram,
                and the grain offering for the lambs, as much as he
                wants to give, as well as a hin of oil with every ephah. 

                NB: 1) These verses simply state the quantities on a 
                       Sabbath day. They do NOT say that these are in
                       addition to the regular daily offering.
                    2) In verse 5 the notion "as much as he wants to
                       give", literally means "a present an open hand".
                       This could be indicating a scooped handful of
                       grain.



APPOINTED NEW MOONS


In attempting to understand the quantities of various animals sacrificed
it is essential to grasp what the New Moon (so called 'monthly offerings')
actually represent.

In the Old Testament the same Hebrew word is sometimes translated 'months'
and sometimes translated 'New Moons'. 
If the text made sense using the translation 'months' then this was applied,
otherwise the rendering 'New Moons' was provided.

This resulted in translations rendering the word 'months' when 'New Moons'
were actually being discussed.

Numbers 28:11-15 is such an example. What is being discussed here is not
'months', but religious occasions being identified as 'New Moons'.

"New Moons" are not literal 'new moons'. They are ceremonial 'New Moons'.

The topic of 'New Moons' is more fully discussed on the page; 

NEW MOON - Chodesh - Explained!


In accordance with the teaching of the above webpage New Moons will NOT
be viewed as the first days of each literal month. They will be viewed
as days which represent transitions in the figurative Moon. Changes to
the symbolic 'Moon' - ie major changes/renewals to the Old Covenant
congregation. These memorial days being associated with major points
of inflection through time (both past and future).

With reference to observance days the seven annual rest days, are
categorised as follows:


     first day of Unleavened Bread         -  New Moon
     seventh day of Unleavened Bread       -  New Moon
     Feast of Weeks - ie Pentecost         -  New Moon
     Day of Trumpets                       -  New Moon
     Day of Atonement                      -  Sabbath (type of)
     first day of Tabernacles              -  New Moon
     Last Day - following Tabernacles      -  New Moon



***  There exist only six annual "New Moons".  ***


 
Timing                    Bulls  Ram  Lambs            Grain             Drink
                                                 (Fine flour & P/Oil)

Numbers 28:11-15
People's burnt offering

'head of'                   2                 3/10 ephah  +  3/8 hin    1/2 hin
                                  1           2/10 ephah  +  2/8 hin    1/3 hin
                                        7     1/10 ephah  +  1/8 hin    1/4 hin  
Ezekiel 46:4-5
Prince's burnt offering

morning(?)                  1                 1 ephah     +    1 hin
                                  1           1 ephah     +    1 hin
                                        6     open hand of grain;
                                              hin oil to an ephah

                          ---   ---   ---
                            3     2    13

PEOPLE'S BURNT OFFERING


    Num  28:11  At the beginnings of your months(New Moons) you shall
                present a burnt offering to the Lord: two young bulls,
                one ram, and seven lambs in their first year, without
                blemish;
           :12  three-tenths of an ephah of fine flour as a grain offering,
                mixed with oil, for each bull; two-tenths of an ephah of
                fine flour as a grain offering, mixed with oil, for the
                one ram;
           :13  and one-tenth of an ephah of fine flour, mixed with oil,
                as a grain offering for each lamb, as a burnt offering of
                sweet aroma, an offering made by fire to the Lord.
           :14  Their drink offering shall be half a hin of wine for
                a bull, one-third of a hin for a ram, and one-fourth
                of a hin for a lamb; this is the burnt offering for each
                month(New Moon) throughout the months(New Moons) of the
                year.
           :15  Also one kid of the goats as a sin offering to the Lord
                shall be offered, besides the regular burnt offering and
                its drink offering.

                NB: 1) These offerings were presented in the 'head of' the
                       days; ie at the very beginning of the 24 hour day.
                       [NB: The same expression is found in Num 10:10.
                            In Num 10:10 both 'appointed times' and
                            'New Moons' are mentioned. As New Moons
                            are also appointed times, this advises
                            that on New Moon days the trumpet was
                            sounded soon after the start of the 24
                            hour day and also again prior to sunrise.
                            Both times in connection with offerings. ]

                    2) The Standard ratio of oil to grain has been applied.

PRINCE'S BURNT OFFERING


    Ezek 46:6  On the day of the New Moon it shall be a young bull without
               blemish, six lambs, and a ram; they shall be without blemish.
           :7  He shall prepare a grain offering of an ephah for a bull, an
               ephah for a ram, as much as he wants to give for the lambs,
               and a hin of oil with every ephah.




ANNUAL ASSEMBLY OCCASIONS

('New Moons' included)


BULLS
               Num 28/29   New Moon     Prince     N/M Prince  Sabbath
                             Extra      Ezek 45      Extra     Prince
                                                    Ezek 46    Ezek 46

Passover 14th                              1

U/L Bread 1         2           2          7          1
U/L Bread 2         2                      7
U/L Bread 3         2                      7
U/L Bread 4         2                      7
U/L Bread 5         2                      7
U/L Bread 6         2                      7
U/L Bread 7         2           2          7          1

Pentecost           2           2                     1

Trumpets            1           2                     1
Atonement           1                       
Tabernacles 1      13           2          7          1
Tabernacles 2      12                      7
Tabernacles 3      11                      7
Tabernacles 4      10                      7
Tabernacles 5       9                      7
Tabernacles 6       8                      7
Tabernacles 7       7                      7          1
Last Day            1           2

                  ---         ---        ---        ---        ---
Total              89          12        101          6

Grand Total 208 + Atonement (Lev 16:3 1 bull)/Passover = 209
(Exod 29:35-37 annual?)


RAMS
               Num 28/29   New Moon     Prince     N/M Prince  Sabbath
                             Extra      Ezek 45      Extra     Prince
                                                    Ezek 46    Ezek 46

Passover 14th                              

U/L Bread 1         1           1          7          1
U/L Bread 2         1                      7
U/L Bread 3         1                      7
U/L Bread 4         1                      7
U/L Bread 5         1                      7
U/L Bread 6         1                      7
U/L Bread 7         1           1          7          1

Pentecost           1           1                     1

Trumpets            1           1                     1
Atonement           1                       			 1
Tabernacles 1       2           1          7          1
Tabernacles 2       2                      7
Tabernacles 3       2                      7
Tabernacles 4       2                      7
Tabernacles 5       2                      7
Tabernacles 6       2                      7
Tabernacles 7       2                      7          1
Last Day            1           1

                  ---         ---        ---        ---        ---
Total              25           6         98          6          1

Grand Total 138 + 1 ram (Lev 16:3) = 139



LAMBS
               Num 28/29   New Moon     Prince     N/M Prince  Sabbath
                             Extra      Ezek 45      Extra     Prince
                                                    Ezek 46    Ezek 46

Passover 14th                              

U/L Bread 1         7           7                     6
U/L Bread 2         7                       
U/L Bread 3         7                       
U/L Bread 4         7                       
U/L Bread 5         7                      
U/L Bread 6         7                      
U/L Bread 7         7           7                     6

Pentecost           7           7                     6

Trumpets            7           7                     6
Atonement           7                       			 6
Tabernacles 1      14           7                     6
Tabernacles 2      14                      
Tabernacles 3      14                      
Tabernacles 4      14                      
Tabernacles 5      14                      
Tabernacles 6      14                      
Tabernacles 7      14                                 6
Last Day            7           7

                  ---         ---        ---        ---        ---
Total             175          42                    36          6

Grand Total 259

[ NB: The Passover lamb, set aside on the 10th of the first month, is
      not included in the count as it was not offered at the Temple.
      Rather the lamb was killed amidst private residences and the shed
      blood was immediately placed on doorposts and lintels. The meat
      was then roasted in the homes of the people and consumed before
      midnight. ]


GOATS
               Num 28/29   New Moon   N/M Prince   N/M Prince  Sabbath
                             Extra      Ezek 45      Extra     Prince
                                                    Ezek 46    Ezek 46

Passover 14th                              

U/L Bread 1         1           1          1          
U/L Bread 2         1                      1
U/L Bread 3         1                      1
U/L Bread 4         1                      1
U/L Bread 5         1                      1
U/L Bread 6         1                      1
U/L Bread 7         1           1          1          

Pentecost           1           1                     

Trumpets            1           1                     
Atonement           1                       
Tabernacles 1       1           1          1          
Tabernacles 2       1                      1
Tabernacles 3       1                      1
Tabernacles 4       1                      1
Tabernacles 5       1                      1
Tabernacles 6       1                      1
Tabernacles 7       1                      1          
Last Day            1           1

                  ---         ---        ---        ---        ---
Total              18           6         14                    

Grand Total 38



Notes: 1)  At the time the ark of the covenant was brought to Jerusalem
           they offered seven bulls and seven rams (1Chr 15:26), the 
           numbers of animals the Prince had to offer during the Feast
           of Unleavened Bread and the Feast of Tabernacles.






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