NEW MOON - Chodesh - Explained!

new moon

'New Moons' of Scripture

full moon

It has been taught that 'New Moons' were days which were celebrated
at the start of each month.

Is this correct?
There has also been a common belief that months in God's ordained calendar were in harmony with the cycles of the moon.
Is this correct?


The moon rotates around the earth on a cycle of about 29.5 days. This
means that calendars based on the lunar pattern would have months of
varying length. (The length of months would usually rotate between
durations of 29 days and 30 days.)

For this reason, if the lunar teaching was correct, one would expect
to see in Scripture a few examples of such a pattern. However, such
examples are not present.

What Scripture does provide is indications that each month was 30 days
in length.

   - The chronology of the Flood appears to depict 30 day
     months. The passing of 150 days (Gen 7:24) appears to
     take us from the 17th day of the 2nd month (Gen 7:11)
     to the 17th day of the 7th month (Gen 8:4).
     Also refer to the page The Genesis Flood Chronology.

   - The biblical account of the departure from Egypt to the
     declaring of the Mt Sinai commandments can be viewed in
     such a way to show the first and second months of God's
     calendar for that year were composed of 30 days each.
     (The crossing of the Red Sea occurring on the latter
     portion of the 17th day of the first month (first of
     fifty days) and the giving of the ten commandments on
     the 6th day of the third month (the fiftieth day of
     fifty days).

   - Prophetic texts in the book of Revelation suggest 3.5
     times(years) would equate to 42 months or 1260 days.

   - In the book of Daniel the 'seven times' of Dan 4:16
     has been explained as shadowing a greater prophetic
     period of 2,520 years, that is 7 years of 360 days
     per year.

   - Other prophetic periods are also divisible by 30,
       Ezek  4:5  - 390  days (equals 13 x 30 days)
       Dan  12:11 - 1290 days (equals 43 x 30 days)
       Dan  12:12 - 1335 days (equals 44.5 x 30 days)

So with this in mind, let us consider just what is being described by
the term 'New Moon'.


The Hebrew word 'chodesh', which is Strong's Exhaustive Concordance
reference 2320.

Strong's 2320
The scanned image is saying, 2318 chadash, khaw-dash; a primary root; to be new; causative to rebuild:-renew, repair. 2319 chadash, khaw-dawsh: from 2318; new:-fresh, new thing. 2320 chodesh, kho-desh; from 2318; the new moon; by implication a month:-month (-ly), new moon. It shows that chodesh, Strong's 2320, is a word which has a primary meaning derived from Strong's reference 2318 (which means 'to be new'). Hence, Strong's Exhaustive Concordance 2320 does not strictly mean 'new moon'. Rather it means 'new' with an implication that 'month' or 'new moon' is being indicated. (This is the reason why in Strong's the literal definition (on the 2nd line of 2320) shows 'new moon' and not 'new moon'. The word 'new' is shown in italics, because only the word 'new' reflects the actual primary meaning of this word.) In practice the Hebrew word has been translated: - 'month' : The most common translation of the word 'chodesh' is simply as 'month'. - 'New Moon' : Translators noticing that Scripture uses the word 'chodesh' in a second religious context have chosen in these cases to simply render the Hebrew word as 'New Moon'. The notion 'New Moon' has generally been viewed at a literal level. Nevertheless, there is reason to believe this term is being applied figuratively to reflect new phases in the plan of God. [ NB: It is worth noting that the symbol of the 'moon' is also used in a symbolic manner in Scripture (refer, Gen 37:9-10, Psalm 121:6, 148:3 and Rev 12:1). The moon is often thought to represent the feminine aspect of the church; due to the fact that the moon does not generate its own light but rather reflects the light of the sun (which is a symbol for Christ). ] As the Jewish faith today uses a lunar based calendar the expression 'New Moon' probably seemed a natural translation. However, anyone concluding that Scripture does NOT teach a literal 'New Moon' month, would be happier with the more neutral rendering 'New Month'. In any, case, as the Hebrew word 2320 only has a root meaning of 'new' or 'to be new', one should not try to prove the existence of a literal 'New Moon' solely using this Hebrew word. [ NB: The Hebrew does have a word for 'moon', Strong's reference 3394. So if Scripture wanted to clearly refer to a "new moon" it could have done so, by combining the Strong's references 2318 and 3394. ] It seems as though translators have generally elected to render the Hebrew 2320 as 'month' unless the rendering would not make sense. Therefore, it is likely they may have in some cases confused the true meaning of some verses, by incorrectly rendering 'month', when 'New Moon' (or 'New Month') are actually being discussed.


There are a number of New Moon verses, but two of the most interesting

    Amos   8:4   Hear this, you who swallow up the needy, And
                 make the poor of the land fail,
            :5   Saying: "When will the New Moon be past, that
                 we may sell grain? And the Sabbath, that we
                 may trade wheat? Making the ephah small and
                 the shekel large, falsifying the scales by

    2King  4:23  So he said, "Why are you going to him today?
                 It is neither New Moon nor Sabbath."
                 And she said, "It is well".

These verses are defining the New Moon days, as being days of commanded
rest and religious assembly.

So at this time we could reflect upon what we would expect to see in
Scripture, if indeed the months were lunar based and literal new moons
were indeed occasions for rest and religious celebration.

We would expect to see the months all named! We would expect to have
month names which reflected the fortunes of Israel (and those of
faith) through time, with latter month names incorporating prophetic

In short we would expect to see a summarized outline of God's Work.

What do we see?

                                                    STRONG'S DEFINITION
   1st month - Abib      Exod 13:4, 23:15,
                         Exod 34:18, Deut 16:1    - be tender
                                                  - green, ie young ear
                                                              of grain
   2nd month - Ziv       1Kings  6:1,37           - prominent,
                                                    month of flowers
   7th month - Ethanium  1Kings  8:2              - permanent, to continue,
                                                    eg the permanent brooks
   8th month - Bul       1Kings  6:38             - yield - rain
                                                          - produce


   1st month - Nisan     Neh  2:1, Esth 3:7       - ? (foreign origin?)
   3rd month - Sivan     Esth 8:9                 - ? (Persian origin?)
   6th month - Elul      Neh  6:15                - ? (foreign derivation?)
   9th month - Chislev   Neh  1:1, Zech 7:1       - ? (foreign origin?)
  10th month - Tebeth    Esth 2:16                - ? (foreign derivation?)
  11th month - Shebat    Zech 1:7                 - ? (foreign origin)
  12th month - Adar      Ezra 6:15, Est 3:7,13,
                         Est 8:12,9:1,15,17,19,21 - ? (foreign derivation?)


  no month names quoted!

What this shows is that only four months were named in Scripture prior
to the Babylonian captivity. Names after the captivity, according to
Strong's Exhaustive Concordance, appear to have been of foreign origin.
What one finds when reading Scripture is that months are usually referred
to by their number in the year, not by their names.

All this means that months carried minimal significance, only some minor
connection to the harvest or season. This is not what one would expect if
Old Covenant Scripture was indeed requiring monthly 'new moon' rest days
and religious gathering.

The conclusion is apparent, the Old Covenant does not teach literal
'new moon' observance.

So let us now look for a symbolic form of 'new moon'.


Leviticus chapter 23 lists the appointments of the LORD.

    Lev   23:2   Speak to the children of Israel, and say to
                 them: The feasts of the LORD, which you shall
                 proclaim to be holy convocations, these are
                 my feasts.

            :4   These are the feasts of the LORD, holy
                 convocations which you shall proclaim at
                 their appointed times.

            :44  So Moses declared to the children of Israel
                 the feasts of the LORD.

            [ The word rendered 'feasts' in these verses is
              Strong's 4150 and means 'appointments'. ]

What is being listed in this chapter is all the appointments which the
children of Israel had with God. Occasions of worship at the temple
(or previously the tent of meeting). It did not include observances
which were to take place in private homes.

The observances mentioned are;

                    - weekly Sabbath
                    - 14th Passover
                    - 7 day Feast of Unleavened Bread
                    - wave sheaf day
                    - Feast of Weeks
                    - Day of Trumpets
                    - Day of Atonement
                    - 7 day Feast of Tabernacles
                    - 8th day (day after Feast of Tabernacles)

With the exception of the wave sheaf day, all of these are defined as
times of 'holy convocation' (times of 'holy meeting').
[ NB: The wave sheaf ceremony had to be performed by the priesthood,
  but it was not a day when the children of Israel had to gather
  before the LORD. In this chapter the wave sheaf day is mentioned
  because it directly effects the timing of the subsequent Feast of
  Weeks. ]

When one looks more closely at Leviticus chapter 23 the actual days
of holy convocation (meeting) are;

   - the weekly Sabbath
   - 14th Passover
   - first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread (15th, 1st month)
   - last day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread (21st, 1st month)
   - Feast of Weeks (50th day starting from wave sheaf, ie 3rd month)
   - Day of Trumpets (1st, 7th month)
   - Day of Atonement (10th, 7th month)
   - first day of Feast of Tabernacles (15th, 7th month)
   - Eighth Day (22nd, 7th month). 

This list leaves out a) the 2nd - 6th days of Unleavened Bread, and
                     b) the 2nd - 7th days of Feast of Tabernacles.

Look even closer at Leviticus chapter 23 and we see that these days can
be divided into three groups.

   Days requiring no work be done;

   - the weekly Sabbath                         - Lev 23:3
   - Day of Atonement                           - Lev 23:28,30,31

   Days requiring no customary (occupational) work be done;

   - first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread - Lev 23:7
   - last day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread  - Lev 23:8
   - Feast of Weeks                             - Lev 23:21
   - Day of Trumpets                            - Lev 23:25
   - first day of Feast of Tabernacles          - Lev 23:35
   - eighth Day                                 - Lev 23:36

   Days upon which work could be done;

   - 14th Passover                              - Lev 23:5
   - 2nd day to 6th day of Unleavened Bread
   - 2nd day to 7th day of Feast of Tabernacles

With this in mind one can begin to grasp what days are being referenced
in the following texts.

    Ezek  46:1   Thus says the Lord GOD: "The gateway of the
                 inner court that faces toward the east shall
                 be shut the six working days; but on the Sabbath
                 it shall be opened, and on the day of the New Moon
                 it shall be opened.

            :3   Likewise the people of the land shall worship at
                 the entrance to this gateway before the LORD
                 on Sabbaths and New Moons.

   ***     SABBATHS  - Days requiring no work to be done              ***

   ***     NEW MOONS - Days requiring no customary work to be done    ***


A New Moon illustration is provided by the narrative of David hiding
from Saul in the field.

    1Sam  20:5   And David said to Jonathan, "Indeed tomorrow is
                 the New Moon, and I should not fail to sit with
                 the king to eat. But let me go, that I may hide
                 in the field until the third day at evening.
            :18  Then Jonathan said to David, "Tomorrow is the
                 New Moon; and you will be missed, because your
                 seat will be empty.
            :24  Then David hid in the field. And when the New Moon
                 had come, the king sat down to eat the feast.
            :25  Now the king sat on his seat, as at other times,
                 on a seat by the wall. And Jonathan arose, and
                 Abner sat by Saul's side, but David's place was
            :26  Nevertheless Saul did not say anything that day,
                 for he thought, "Something has happened to him;
                 he is unclean, surely he is unclean."
            :27  And it happened the next day, the second day of
                 the month[New Moon], that David's place was empty.
                 And Saul said to Jonathan his son, "Why has the
                 son of Jesse not come to eat, either yesterday
                 or today?"
            :34  So Jonathan arose from the table in fierce anger,
                 and ate no food the second day of the month, for
                 he was grieved for David, because his father had
                 treated him shamefully.
            :35  And so it was, in the morning, that Jonathan went
                 out into the field at the time appointed with
                 David, ...

                 [ NB: In verse 27 the Hebrew word for 'month'
                       is once again 'chodesh' and so can also
                       be translated 'New Moon'. ]

In this account we see David hiding in the field, suggesting a time
prior to the start of the grain harvest. We also observe that there
was a temple ceremony which spanned at least two consecutive days;
a ceremony which the king and his associates were expected to attend.

In this account we have David and Jonathan talking on the day before
the New Moon, then a New Moon day, followed by the second day of the
New Moon and then what is described as a third day when Jonathan signals
David. Therefore we have two complete intervening feast days when David
was hidden and did not communicate with Jonathan.

These points suggest the two days represented the first and second days
of the Feast of Unleavened Bread, observed on the 15th and 16th of the
first month!
According to Ezek 46:1 the prince (in this case Saul) was expected to
attend on sabbaths and new moon days. The 15th of the first month was
an annual rest day (refer Lev 23:34-35), so would qualify as a religious
'new moon' day. For Saul to have to attend on the 16th, there is the
implication that the 16th was a weekly Sabbath day in that year.
This would mean the 17th in that year would be the Wave Sheaf day, so
David would have needed to leave his hiding place as people would
arrive at the field and start to reap the grain.

[ NB: 1) In verse 27 above there is a reference to 'the second day
         of the New Moon'. Therefore it appears that days immediately
         following a 'New Moon', may be associated with the prior
         'New Moon' occurrence.
      2) In verse 12 there is another 'third day' reference.
         Verse 5 is counting the days from the first 'new moon'.
         Verse 12 is counting the days from the day they are
         speaking. Different starting points.
      3) David talks about hiding until evening (verse 5), while
         Jonathan goes to see him in the morning (verse 35).
         (Suggesting a time that can be known by both terms.) ]


The term 'New Moons' is commonly encountered in connection with the
notions of 'Sabbaths' and 'set feasts'.

    1Chr  23:31  and at every presentation of a burnt offering to
                 the LORD on the Sabbaths and on the New Moons and
                 on the set feasts, by number according to the
                 ordinance governing them, regularly before the

    2Chr   8:13  according to the daily rate, offering according
                 to the commandment of Moses, for the Sabbaths,
                 the New Moons, and the three appointed yearly
                 feasts; the Feast of Unleavened Bread, the Feast
                 of Weeks, and the Feast of Tabernacles.

    ( Also refer to 2Chr 2:4,31:3, Ezra 3:5, Neh 10:33, Isa 1:13-14,
                    Ezek 45:17, Hosea 2:11 & Col 2:16. )

In Hosea 2:11 these three groups are stated to be all the appointments.

    Hos    2:11  I will also cause all her mirth to cease, Her
                 feast days{2282}, Her New Moons{2320}, Her
                 Sabbaths{7676}; All her appointed feasts{4150}

To fully understand the meaning of such verses one has to consider
exactly what is being referred to by each term.


In the 'Sabbaths, New Moons, Feasts' texts the Hebrew words translated
'feast' are Strong's 2282 and Strong's 4150.

2282 - Ezek 45:17, Hosea 2:11

4150 - 1Chr 23:31, 2Chr 2:4,8:13,31:3, Ezra 3:5, Neh 10:33, Isa 1:14

2282 - 'chag'
The word 'chag', when used in relation to God's designated appointed
observances, is only ever applied to one of the following;

        -  the feast of Passover   (14th or 14-20th, 1st month)
        -  the Feast of Unleavened Bread   (15-21st, 1st month)
        -  the Feast of Weeks   (variable date 4-10th, 3rd month)
        -  the Feast of Tabernacles   (15-21st, 7th month).

Apart from being translated 'feast(s)' or 'set feasts' is also commonly
rendered 'appointed' or 'meeting'.
In some verses such as Lev 23:2 and Num 28:2 the word is used broadly.
Nevertheless, in the context of 'Sabbaths, New Moons, Feasts' the word
relates to the three annual feasts;

        -  the Feast of Unleavened Bread
        -  the Feast of Weeks
        -  the Feast of Tabernacles

As shown by the following verse;

    2Chr   8:13  according to the daily rate, offering according
                 to the commandment of Moses, for the Sabbaths,
                 the New Moons, and the three appointed yearly
                 feasts; the Feast of Unleavened Bread,
                         the Feast of Weeks, and
                         the Feast of Tabernacles.


The plural form of Sabbath is encountered in the 'Sabbaths, New Moons,
Feasts' verses. (Isa 1:13 being the exception, although commonly rendered
in English as plural.)

The question arises as to whether the plural form is representing
multiple weekly Sabbaths or multiple forms of sabbath.

Many people realize there are several forms of sabbath;

         - weekly
         - Day of Atonement (Lev 16:31, 23:32)
         - other annual rest days
         - land

So a plural use of the word sabbath may refer to several, or all of,
these different forms. However, considering the 'day' context of these
'Sabbaths, New Moons and Feasts' verses the land sabbath, being a year
in duration, would have to be excluded.

Those who have taught the common New Moon perspective have tended to
consider 'Sabbaths', in the 'Sabbaths, New Moons, Feasts' context,
as being a reference to both weekly and annual sabbaths. This of course
would be a necessary requirement of the common New Moon view, otherwise
the absence of any mention of the annual sabbaths would raise questions.

After consideration of the 'Sabbaths, New Moons and Feasts' verses it
seems these terms are to be understood as follows;

         - 'Sabbaths'  - full sabbaths,
                         ie, the weekly Sabbath and the Day of Atonement,
         - 'New Moons' - lesser sabbaths,
                         ie, the six commanded rest days
         - 'Feasts'    - the three annual feasts.

                         [ NB: 1) The 'full sabbaths' required that no
                                  manner of work be done, refer Exod
                                  35:2,3 and Lev 23:31.
                               2) The 'lesser sabbaths' required only
                                  that no customary work be done,
                                  refer Lev 23:7,8,21,23,35,36. Food
                                  preparation was allowed, Exod 12:16. ]


The Numbers 10:10 verse is similar to the above 'Sabbaths, New Moons,
Feasts' verses, but uses a slightly different form of expression.

    Num   10:10  Also in the day of your gladness, in your
                 appointed feasts, and at the beginning of
                 your months [or 'beginning of your New Moons'],
                 you shall blow the trumpets over your burnt
                 offerings and over the sacrifices of your
                 peace offerings; ...

In this verse;

        - 'day of your gladness' appears to refer to
           the Passover of the 14th.
        - 'appointed feasts' to the three annual feasts
        - 'beginning of your New Moons' to the commanded
           rest days. (NB: Not all the rest days fell on
           feast days.)



    Psalm 81:1  Sing aloud to God our strength; Make a joyful
                shout to the God of Jacob.
            :2  Raise a song and strike the timbrel, The pleasant
                harp with the lute.
            :3  Blow the trumpet at the time of the New Moon,
                At the full moon, on our solemn feast day.
            :4  For this is a statute for Israel, A law of the
                God of Jacob.
            :5  This He established in Joseph as a testimony, When
                He went throughout the land of Egypt, Where I heard
                a language I did not understand.
            :6  "I removed his shoulder from the burden; His hands
                were freed from the baskets.
            :7  You called in trouble, and I delivered you;
                I answered you in the secret place of thunder;
                I tested you at the waters of Meribah." Selah

                [ NB: The rendering of the Hebrew 'chag' in
                      verse 3 as 'solemn feast' is obviously
                      inappropriate, given the context of
                      joyful songs and music. ]

The above Psalms text introduces another thought 'at the full moon'.

This has caused concern for those who take literally the notions of
'New Moon' and 'full moon'. Since both these thoughts are clearly
being presented alongside each other and in the context of 'a law'
and 'a testimony'

The context appears to referring to the exodus of the children of
Israel from Egypt. (An event which occurred in the middle of the

The 'full moon' comment may give rise to the notion that the bible's
term 'New Moon' in this verse is indeed referring to the first annual
sabbath of the 15th of the first month. Nevertheless, some may then
go on to say that this proves that at least this first month of the
year, must have been initiated by a literal new moon. (A literal
'new moon' on the 1st of the month and a full moon by the 15th.)

However, as the notion New Moon is being used in a figurative sense,
it is likely that the notion 'full moon' is also figurative. That
is to say, it is merely reflecting that the 15th of the first month
was the time of the year when the children of Israel would gather
together at the place where God chose to place His name (as required
under God's Law). This gathering would symbolically represent a 'full

ISAIAH 66:23

   Isa   66:23  And it shall come to pass that from one
                New Moon to another, and from one Sabbath
                to another, All flesh shall come to worship
                before Me," says the LORD.

In the Old Covenant the lay people annually journeyed to where God had
placed His name to attend the Passover feast.

   1Sam   1:3   This man (father of Samuel) went up from his
                city yearly to worship and sacrifice to the
                LORD of hosts in Shiloh.

   Luke   2:41  His parents (Joseph and Mary) went to Jerusalem
                every year at the Feast of the Passover.

It seems therefore that the above Isaiah 66:23 verse, which talks about
'all flesh shall come', is referring to the Feast of Unleavened Bread
(refer Lev 23:6-8), which was a seven day feast occurring at the time
of Passover.

The Feast of Unleavened Bread is delimited by two annual sabbaths,
observed on the 15th and 21st of the first month. These appear to be
the days referred to in Isa 66:23.


The following 'New Moon' verse embodies a prophetic teaching.

    Hos 5:7  They have dealt treacherously with the LORD,
             For they have begotten pagan children. Now a
             New Moon shall devour them and their heritage.

The text is directed toward the 'house of Israel' and Judah, refer
to the prior verses 5:1,3,5 and the following verses 5:9-14.

Verse 5:8 mentions the blowing of the ram's horn, something associated
with the Day of Atonement and jubilee (ie the notion of release from
bondage), refer Lev 25:9. The end-time release from bondage corresponds
to the seventh month seven day period of the Feast of Tabernacles.

The theme of the Hosea text is the anger of God upon His rebellious
people, a theme reflected in the period known as the 'day of the Lord'.
(Refer Ezekiel 13:3-5.) After this period God will again have mercy
on His people (Hos 5:15) and raise them up again (Hos 6:2). The raising
of God's people is a theme associated with the last annual assembly day,
ie the 'last day' (refer John 6:39-40,44,54). The annual assembly day
which precedes the 'last day' is the first day of the Feast of Tabernacles.

It seems that the specific New Moon day referred to in this verse is the
first day of the Feast of Tabernacles.


The verses that have largely been responsible for causing people to
believe that there was a command to observe the appearance of the
moon are;

    Num   28:11  At the beginnings of your months you shall
                 present a burnt offering to the LORD: ...

            :14  Their drink offering shall be half a hin of wine
                 for a bull, one-third of a hin for a ram, and
                 one-fourth of a hin for a lamb; this is the
                 burnt offering for each month throughout the
                 months of the year.

What was not apparent to many readers was that these verses could also
be rendered;

    Num   28:11  At the beginnings of your NEW MOONS you shall
                 present a burnt offering to the LORD: ...

            :14  Their drink offering shall be half a hin of wine
                 for a bull, one-third of a hin for a ram, and
                 one-fourth of a hin for a lamb; this is the
                 burnt offering for each NEW MOON throughout the
                 NEW MOONS of the year.

The Numbers 28:11,14 texts do not stand completely on their own. In
the subsequent discussion the New Moon is again mentioned.

    Num   29:1   And in the seventh month, on the first day of
                 the month, you shall have a holy convocation.
                 You shall do no customary work. For you it is
                 a day of blowing the trumpets.
            :2   You shall offer a burnt offering as a sweet
                 aroma to the LORD: one young bull, one ram,
                 and seven lambs in their first year, without
            :6   besides the burnt offering with its grain
                 offering for the New Moon, the regular burnt
                 offering with its grain offering, and their
                 drink offerings, according to their ordinance,
                 as a sweet aroma, an offering made by fire to
                 the LORD.

This very clearly shows that the Day of Trumpets was a New Moon.

It also describes this 'Day of Trumpets' as the first day of a month.
Hence, on the surface, giving credibility to the common lunar cycle

However, many biblical teachers in the past have failed to give
adequate consideration to the fact that this day was also one of
the annual commanded assemblies.

Since in the text of Numbers chapter 28 none of the other annual
assembly day texts happen to mention that their specified burnt
offerings were to be in addition to those required for the 'New
Moon' (listed in Numbers 28:11-15), there was also the implication
that the other annual days were not New Moons.

What many have not considered is that the burnt offerings specified
for the days of Unleavened Bread, and the following Feast of Weeks,
were identical to that of the New Moon offering. Two young bulls,
one ram and seven lambs; along with their specified grain and drink

Indeed it is interesting, that only once the offering for the Day
of Trumpets is defined, is their variance from the offering specified
for the New Moon.

So, one could initially be of the view that the New Moon offering
and the offerings for the first three commanded annual rest days
(first and seventh days of the Feast of Unleavened Bread and the
Feast of Weeks day) were simply the same offering.

This reasoning appears to be valid until we read in Numbers 28:24
that the designated offerings were offered over all the seven days
of the Feast of Unleavened Bread.

    Num   28:24   In this manner you shall offer the food of the
                  offering made by fire daily for seven days, as
                  a sweet aroma to the Lord; it shall be offered
                  besides the regular burnt offering and its drink

This is also confirmed by Leviticus 23:8.

    Lev   23:7    On the first day you shall have a holy convocation
                  (the 15th); you shall do no customary work on it.
            :8    But you shall offer an offering made by fire to the
                  Lord for seven days.  ...

So was there another difference between the New Moon offerings and
those of the first three commanded annual rest days?

A timing difference? A time of day difference?

The Feast of Unleavened Bread offerings were offered along with
the regular daily offerings around sunrise. However, the New Moon
offerings were made many hours earlier at the beginning ('head')
of the day.

    Num   28:11   At the beginnings (literally 'head') of your
                  months (New Moons) you shall present a burnt
                  offering to the Lord: two young bulls, one ram,
                  and seven lambs in their first year, without

    Num   10:10   Also in the day of your gladness, in your appointed
                  feasts, and at the beginning (literally 'head') of
                  your months (New Moons),  you shall blow the
                  trumpets over your burnt offerings and over the
                  sacrifices of your peace offerings; ...

New Moon days represent major milestones in the past/future of the Old
Covenant faith, so it was only appropriate that New Moon offerings be
presented at the very start of these days. 

[NB: 1) As New Moons were also appointed feast days there would be no
        reason to mention New Moons in Num 10:10 if all the offerings
        were offered at the same time of day. 
     2) As this site teaches that the biblical days began and ended
        at midnight - this would mean on New Moon days the trumpets
        would initially blow some time after midnight. As the trumpets
        would have been blown over the specified 'New Moon' offerings,
        the actual time was probably around 3:00 am. Then, subsequently,
        the trumpets would have blown again over the other morning
        offerings about sunrise.]


The following verse is often quoted as supportive proof of a lunar based

    Gen    1:14  Then God said, "Let there be lights in the
                 firmament of the heavens to divide the day
                 from the night; and let them be for signs
                 and seasons, and for days and years;"

However, the word for 'seasons' in this verse is Strong's Ref 4150, a
word which is commonly rendered 'meeting', 'feasts' or 'appointed time'.
So rather than suggesting a true 'season' of the year, allusion is being
made to the annual commanded observances.

Therefore, lights in the firmament were for 'signs and appointed times',
and for days and years'.
(The rendering of the Hebrew word as 'seasons' is misleading.)

  [ NB: Note the idea 'appointed times', referring to holy days
        and assemblies, corresponds well with the idea 'signs'.
        Both of these alluding to the more significant prophetic
        message. ]


Defining the term 'New Moons', as a reference to most of the annual
rest days, means that it is not possible to utilise the New Moon verses
to justify the practice of observing months based upon the lunar cycle.

It also means that at this time it is impossible to know exactly what
day should begin a Hebrew month, or the Hebrew year. A starting point
for God's 30 day cycle no longer being known.

So while some (ie, Jews and a few Christian groups) have desired to
observe all (or some) of these annual holy appointments, it would
likely require God's assistance to ascertain the proper timing.


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