PASSOVER - TWO OBSERVANCES



Passover - lamb 13th

Exodus and Christ Examples

Passover - temple 14th




PASSOVER 14TH OF ABIB


It is commonly known that the Jewish Passover involved the sacrifice of
a lamb in the first month ('Abib'). Many Old Testament scriptures state
the Passover observance occurred on the 14th, but scholars do not agree
on how to reflect this in the narratives of Exodus and Christ.


To help clarify the correct position it is helpful to review how the
Passover was observed.


EXODUS AND LATER PASSOVERS


The first, and best known, Passover is that described in Exodus 12:6-13.
This Passover concerned the death of the firstborn of Egypt following
the passing over of the LORD.

    Exod  12:12  For I will pass through the land of Egypt on
                 that night, and will strike all the firstborn
                 in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; ...

            :29  And it came to pass at midnight that the LORD
                 struck all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, ...


To escape the same fate, the Israelites had been instructed to paint the
doorposts and lintel of their homes with the blood (of the lamb).

    Exod  12:7   And they shall take some of the blood
                 and put it on the two doorposts and on
                 the lintel of the houses where they eat
                 it.

            :13  Now the blood shall be a sign for you on
                 the houses where you are. And when I see
                 the blood, I will pass over you; ...

            :23  ... and when He sees the blood on the
                 lintel and on the two doorposts, the LORD
                 will pass over the door and not allow the
                 destroyer to come into your houses to
                 strike you.
Passover - doorposts and lintel
It is important to note that the first Passover service was held in
private homes!

    Exod  12:4   And if the household is too small for the lamb,
                 let him and his neighbor next to his house take
                 it according to the number of the persons;

            :22  ... And none of you shall go out of the door of
                 his house until morning.

            :23  ... and not allow the destroyer to come into
                 your houses to strike you.



In the many subsequent Old Testament references to Passover we encounter
a formal observance held only at the house of God.

    Exod  12:43  ... This is the ordinance of the Passover: ...
            :46  In one house it shall be eaten; ...

    Deut  16:5   You may not sacrifice the Passover within any of
                 your gates which the LORD your God gives you;
            :6   but at the place where the LORD your God chooses
                 to make His name abide, there you shall sacrifice
                 the Passover at twilight, ...

    2King 23:23  But in the eighteenth year of King Josiah this
                 Passover was held before the LORD in Jerusalem.

    2Chr  30:15  Then they slaughtered the Passover lambs[NB: the
                 word 'lambs' has been incorrectly added by the
                 translators and is not present in the original
                 Hebrew text] on the fourteenth day of the second
                 month. The priests and the Levites were ashamed,
                 and sanctified themselves, and brought the burnt
                 offerings to the house of the LORD.

    2Chr  35:1   Now Josiah kept a Passover to the LORD in Jerusalem,
                 and they slaughtered the Passover lambs [NB: the
                 word 'lambs' has been incorrectly added by the
                 translators and is not present in the original
                 Hebrew text] on the fourteenth day of the first month.
            :5   And stand in the holy place
                 according to the divisions of the
                 fathers' houses of your brethren
                 the lay people, and according to
                 the division of the father's
                 house of the Levites.
Passover - Temple ritual
    Ezra   6:19  And the descendants of the captivity kept the Passover
                 on the fourteenth day of the first month.
            :20  For the priests and the Levites had purified themselves;
                 all of them were ritually clean. And they slaughtered
                 the Passover lambs[NB: the word 'lambs' has been
                 incorrectly added by the translators and is not present
                 in the original Hebrew text] for all the descendants
                 of the captivity, for their brethren the priests, and
                 for themselves.
            :21  Then the children of Israel who had returned from the
                 captivity ate together with all who had separated
                 themselves from the filth of the nations ...



It has generally been thought that the initial private home ceremony was
converted to a temple based service. This has been a false assumption!


The New Testament reflects the correct situation.


BEFORE AND AFTER CHRIST'S DEATH


Scripture records Passover being observed before and after the death of
Christ!

    BEFORE

       Matt  26:17  ... the disciples came to Jesus, saying to Him,
                    "Where do You want us to prepare for You to eat
                    the Passover?"
               :18  And He said, "Go into the city to a certain man,
                    and say to him, 'The Teacher says, "My time is
                    at hand; I will keep the Passover at your house
                    with My disciples"'"
               :19  So the disciples did as Jesus had directed them;
                    and they prepared the Passover.

       Luke  22:15  Then He said to them, "With fervent desire I have
                    desired to eat this Passover with you before I
                    suffer;"


    AFTER

       John  18:28  Then they led Jesus from Caiaphas to the Praetorium,
                    and it was early morning. But they themselves did
                    not go into the Praetorium, lest they should be
                    defiled, but that they might eat the Passover.


This conflicting timing has led to much controversy. Some have said
the last supper was merely a meal and that the Passover celebration was
after His death. Others have taught Christ did keep the Passover with
His disciples and that the Jews were mistaken in observing the following
night. Both of these views are wrong!

In reality, in both the Old and New Testaments, Scripture is presenting
two separate Passover observances!


{Click on the pages below}






Differences
Between
the
Passovers
The
Exodus
and the
Passovers
Timing
of the
Two
Passovers
Nature
of the
Second
Passover
The
Seven
Day
'Passover'
Passover
-
Observances
Ordained
Summary
-
The
Passovers


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