Apart from the difference in location (private homes versus house of
God) highlighted in the previous page, there exists a number of distinct
differences between the two Passovers.
DIFFERENT ANIMALS OFFERED
The animals offered under the terms of the first Passover were lambs
of the first year taken from either the sheep or goats.
Exod 12:5 Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male of
the first year. You may take it from the sheep
or from the goats.
The animals offered at the time of the second Passover were to be
sourced from the flock and the herd.
Deut 16:2 Therefore you shall sacrifice the Passover to
the LORD your God, from the flock and the herd,
in the place where the LORD chooses to place
Scripture uses the term 'flock' to refer to sheep and goats, and
the term 'herd' to refer to cattle and oxen.
2Chr 35:7 Then Josiah gave the lay people lambs and
young goats from the flock, ...
Gen 18:7 And Abraham ran to the herd, took a tender
and good calf, ...
Gen 47:17 ... Joseph gave them bread in exchange for
the horses, the flocks, the cattle of the
herds, and for the donkeys ...
1Sam 11:5 Now there was Saul, coming behind the herd
from the field: ...
:7 So he took a yoke of oxen and cut them in
pieces, and sent them throughout all the
territory of Israel.
DIFFERENT COOKING METHODS
The Passover lamb was to be roasted in fire. It could not be eaten
raw or boiled in water.
Exod 12:8 Then they shall eat the flesh on that night;
roasted in fire, ...
:9 Do not eat it raw, nor boiled at all with water,
but roasted in fire; ...
Deut 16:7 And you shall roast[boil]; and eat it in the
place where the LORD your God chooses, ...
2Chr 35:13 Also they roasted[boiled] the Passover offerings
with fire according to the ordinance but[and];
the other holy offerings they boiled in pots, in
caldrons, and in pans, and divided them quickly
among all the lay people.
Usually the Hebrew word for 'boil' found in Deut 16:7 and 2Chr 35:13
is incorrectly rendered as 'roast' (or 'roasted'). This is done because
of the text of Exodus 12:9, 'do not eat it ... boiled'. However, the
Hebrew word encountered in Deut 16:7 (Strong's reference 1310) is the
word 'boil'. It is the same Hebrew word encountered in Exodus 12:9
where the rendering is 'do not eat it ... boiled'.
The translators, in error, have tried in Deut 16:7 and 2Chr 35:13 to
correct what appeared to them to be an obvious mistake in the original
Hebrew. However, in doing so they confused further an already complex
WHEN THE ANIMALS WERE KILLED
The Passover lamb was killed between the evenings (between sunset
Exod 12:6 ... Then the whole assembly of the congregation
of Israel shall kill it at twilight[between the
The animals slaughtered for the second Passover were killed and
prepared prior to night (prior to sunset!).
2Chr 35:11 And they slaughtered the Passover offerings;
and the priests sprinkled the blood with their
hands, while the Levites skinned the animals.
:14 Then afterward they prepared portions for
themselves and for the priests, because the
priests, the sons of Aaron, were busy in
offering burnt offerings and fat until night;
[ NB: Many have incorrectly understood Deut 16:4 and 16:6
and taken these verses to mean that the animals were
slaughtered at the sunset 'evening'. However, a closer
reading of Deut 16:4 shows that it was the meat which
was offered in sacrifice at sunset. The animals having
already been killed, and the meat cooked, prior to sunset.]
LEVEL OF FORMALITY
The first Passover did not involve any degree of formality. It was in
essence a family meal which was eaten in haste, while dressed in a
manner appropriate for travel.
Exod 12:4 And if the household is too small for the lamb,
let him and his neighbor next to his house take
it according to the number of the persons; ...
Exod 12:11 And thus you shall eat it: with a belt on
your waist, your sandals on your feet, and
your staff in your hand. So you shall eat
it in haste. ...
The second Passover involved a degree of formality.
Exod 12:43 ... No foreigner shall eat it.
:44 But every man's servant who is bought for money,
when you have circumcised him, then he may eat it.
:45 A sojourner and a hired servant shall not eat it.
Num 9:6 Now there were certain men who were defiled by
a human corpse, so that they could not keep the
Passover on that day; ...
2Chr 30:16 They stood in their place according to their
custom, according to the Law of Moses the man
2Chr 35:4 Prepare yourselves according to your fathers'
houses, according to your divisions, following
the written instruction of David king of Israel
and the written instruction of Solomon his son.
:5 And stand in the holy place according to the
divisions of the fathers' houses of your brethren
the lay people, and according to the division of
the father's house of the Levites.
:15 And the singers, the sons of Asaph, were in their
places, according to the command of David, ...
BLOOD ON THE DOORPOSTS & LINTEL
The first Passover involved a clear requirement for the placing of the
blood of the lamb on the doorposts and the lintel.
Exod 12:7 And they shall take some of the blood and put
it on the two doorposts and on the lintel of
the houses where they eat it.
The second temple based Passover never mentions the need to place any
blood on a doorway. Therefore the second Passover fails to reflect
this important symbolic element.
The first Passover in Exodus 12:11 and Exod 12:27 is described in the
Hebrew as "passover he to-YHWH".
The second Passover in Exodus 12:48, Lev 23:5, Num 9:10, Num 9:14,
Num 28:16, Deut 16:1, Deut 16:2, 2Kings 23:21, 2Chr 30:1, 2Chr 30:5
and 2Chr 35:1 is described in the Hebrew as "passover to-YHWH".
WHEN FIRST COMMEMORATED
The first Passover was not to be observed again until they had
come into the Promised Land.
Exod 12:25 It will come to pass when you come to the land
which the LORD will give you, just as He
promised, that you shall keep this service.
The second Passover was commemorated shortly after leaving Egypt,
when they were still in the wilderness.
Num 9:1 Now the LORD spoke to Moses in the Wilderness
of Sinai, in the first month of the second year
after they had come out of the land of Egypt,
:2 Let the children of Israel keep the Passover at
its appointed time.
:5 And they kept the Passover on the fourteenth day
of the first month, at twilight[between the
evenings], in the Wilderness of Sinai; ...
COMMON ELEMENTS OF BOTH PASSOVERS
Although there existed a number of differences between these two Passovers
there still remained a few elements in common.
- unleavened bread and bitter herbs
- first Passover - Exod 12:8
- second Passover - Num 9:11
- the meat was to be eaten that night
- first Passover - Exod 12:10
- second Passover - Exod 12:46 (implied), 34:25; Num 9:12;
Deut 16:4, Lev 7:15
- the bones were not to be broken
- first Passover - Exod 12:9 (implied)
- second Passover - Exod 12:46; Num 9:12