Passover - private house

Differences Between the Passovers

Passover - temple

Apart from the difference in location (private homes versus house of
God) highlighted in the previous page, there exists a number of distinct
differences between the two Passovers. 


First Passover

The animals offered under the terms of the first Passover were lambs
of the first year taken from either the sheep or goats.

    Exod  12:5   Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male of
                 the first year. You may take it from the sheep
                 or from the goats.

Second Passover

The animals offered at the time of the second Passover were to be
sourced from the flock and the herd. 

    Deut  16:2   Therefore you shall sacrifice the Passover to
                 the LORD your God, from the flock and the herd,
                 in the place where the LORD chooses to place
                 His name.  

Scripture uses the term 'flock' to refer to sheep and goats, and
the term 'herd' to refer to cattle and oxen.

      - 'flock'

        2Chr 35:7   Then Josiah gave the lay people lambs and
                    young goats from the flock, ...

     - 'herd'
        Gen  18:7   And Abraham ran to the herd, took a tender
                    and good calf, ...

        Gen 47:17   ... Joseph gave them bread in exchange for
                    the horses, the flocks, the cattle of the
                    herds, and for the donkeys ...

        1Sam 11:5   Now there was Saul, coming behind the herd
                    from the field: ...
               :7   So he took a yoke of oxen and cut them in
                    pieces, and sent them throughout all the
                    territory of Israel.


First Passover

The Passover lamb was to be roasted in fire. It could not be eaten
raw or boiled in water.

    Exod  12:8   Then they shall eat the flesh on that night;
                 roasted in fire, ...
            :9   Do not eat it raw, nor boiled at all with water,
                 but roasted in fire; ...

Second Passover

    Deut  16:7   And you shall roast[boil]; and eat it in the
                 place where the LORD your God chooses, ...

    2Chr  35:13  Also they roasted[boiled] the Passover offerings
                 with fire according to the ordinance but[and];
                 the other holy offerings they boiled in pots, in
                 caldrons, and in pans, and divided them quickly
                 among all the lay people.

Usually the Hebrew word for 'boil' found in Deut 16:7 and 2Chr 35:13
is incorrectly rendered as 'roast' (or 'roasted'). This is done because
of the text of Exodus 12:9, 'do not eat it ... boiled'. However, the
Hebrew word encountered in Deut 16:7 (Strong's reference 1310) is the
word 'boil'. It is the same Hebrew word encountered in Exodus 12:9
where the rendering is 'do not eat it ... boiled'.

The translators, in error, have tried in Deut 16:7 and 2Chr 35:13 to
correct what appeared to them to be an obvious mistake in the original
Hebrew. However, in doing so they confused further an already complex


First Passover

The Passover lamb was killed between the evenings (between sunset
and midnight).

    Exod  12:6    ... Then the whole assembly of the congregation
                  of Israel shall kill it at twilight[between the

Second Passover

The animals slaughtered for the second Passover were killed and
prepared prior to night (prior to sunset!).

    2Chr  35:11   And they slaughtered the Passover offerings;
                  and the priests sprinkled the blood with their
                  hands, while the Levites skinned the animals.
            :14   Then afterward they prepared portions for
                  themselves and for the priests, because the
                  priests, the sons of Aaron, were busy in
                  offering burnt offerings and fat until night;

    [ NB: Many have incorrectly understood Deut 16:4 and 16:6
          and taken these verses to mean that the animals were
          slaughtered at the sunset 'evening'. However, a closer
          reading of Deut 16:4 shows that it was the meat which
          was offered in sacrifice at sunset. The animals having
          already been killed, and the meat cooked, prior to sunset.] 


First Passover

The first Passover did not involve any degree of formality. It was in
essence a family meal which was eaten in haste, while dressed in a
manner appropriate for travel.

    Exod  12:4   And if the household is too small for the lamb,
                 let him and his neighbor next to his house take
                 it according to the number of the persons; ...

    Exod  12:11  And thus you shall eat it: with a belt on
                 your waist, your sandals on your feet, and
                 your staff in your hand. So you shall eat
                 it in haste. ...

Second Passover

The second Passover involved a degree of formality.

    Exod  12:43  ... No foreigner shall eat it.
            :44  But every man's servant who is bought for money,
                 when you have circumcised him, then he may eat it.
            :45  A sojourner and a hired servant shall not eat it.

    Num    9:6   Now there were certain men who were defiled by
                 a human corpse, so that they could not keep the
                 Passover on that day; ...

    2Chr  30:16  They stood in their place according to their
                 custom, according to the Law of Moses the man
                 of God;

    2Chr  35:4   Prepare yourselves according to your fathers'
                 houses, according to your divisions, following
                 the written instruction of David king of Israel
                 and the written instruction of Solomon his son.
            :5   And stand in the holy place according to the
                 divisions of the fathers' houses of your brethren
                 the lay people, and according to the division of
                 the father's house of the Levites.
            :15  And the singers, the sons of Asaph, were in their
                 places, according to the command of David, ...


First Passover

The first Passover involved a clear requirement for the placing of the
blood of the lamb on the doorposts and the lintel. 

    Exod  12:7   And they shall take some of the blood and put
                 it on the two doorposts and on the lintel of
                 the houses where they eat it.

Second Passover

The second temple based Passover never mentions the need to place any
blood on a doorway. Therefore the second Passover fails to reflect
this important symbolic element.


First Passover

The first Passover in Exodus 12:11 and Exod 12:27 is described in the
Hebrew as "passover he to-YHWH". 

Second Passover

The second Passover in Exodus 12:48, Lev 23:5, Num 9:10, Num 9:14,
Num 28:16, Deut 16:1, Deut 16:2, 2Kings 23:21, 2Chr 30:1, 2Chr 30:5
and 2Chr 35:1 is described in the Hebrew as "passover to-YHWH".


First Passover

The first Passover was not to be observed again until they had
come into the Promised Land.

    Exod  12:25  It will come to pass when you come to the land
                 which the LORD will give you, just as He
                 promised, that you shall keep this service.

Second Passover

The second Passover was commemorated shortly after leaving Egypt,
when they were still in the wilderness.

    Num    9:1   Now the LORD spoke to Moses in the Wilderness
                 of Sinai, in the first month of the second year
                 after they had come out of the land of Egypt,
            :2   Let the children of Israel keep the Passover at
                 its appointed time.

            :5   And they kept the Passover on the fourteenth day
                 of the first month, at twilight[between the
                  evenings], in the Wilderness of Sinai; ...   


Although there existed a number of differences between these two Passovers
there still remained a few elements in common.

   -  unleavened bread and bitter herbs

        -  first Passover  - Exod 12:8

        -  second Passover - Num 9:11

   -  the meat was to be eaten that night

        - first Passover  - Exod 12:10

        - second Passover - Exod 12:46 (implied), 34:25; Num 9:12;
                            Deut 16:4, Lev 7:15

   -  the bones were not to be broken

        - first Passover  - Exod 12:9 (implied)

        - second Passover - Exod 12:46; Num 9:12


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